منتديــات عـــــرب ســـــام
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاتة
إدارة المنتدي
تحمل براكيناَ من المشاعر
وتحمل جمالاُ ومحاسن لكم
أحبائى الأعضاء و الزوار
فأهلا وسهلا بكم في
منتديــات عـــــرب ســـــام
(إذا كنت زائر فمرحبا يسرنا تسجيلك وإذا رغبت بالقراءه والإطلاع فقط
فتفضل بدخول القسم المراد قراءته وإذا كنت عضو يسرنا دخولك للمنتدي)


 
الرئيسيةس .و .جالتسجيلدخول

شاطر | 
 

 What is e-Learning

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
bakir mohamed
عضو فعال
عضو فعال
avatar

تاريخ التسجيل : 19/01/2010

مُساهمةموضوع: What is e-Learning   الأربعاء 20 يناير - 18:33

Learning is acquiring new knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, preferences or understanding, and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Progress over time tends to follow learning curves.

Human learning may occur as part of education or personal development. It may be goal-oriented and may be aided by motivation. The study of how learning occurs is part of neuropsychology, educational psychology, learning theory, and pedagogy.

Learning may occur as a result of habituation or classical conditioning, seen in many animal species, or as a result of more complex activities such as play, seen only in relatively intelligent animals[1][2] and humans. Learning may occur consciously or without conscious awareness. There is evidence for human behavioral learning prenatally, in which habituation has been observed as early as 32 weeks into gestation, indicating that the central nervous system is sufficiently developed and primed for learning and memory to occur very early on in development.[3]


Play has been approached by several theorists as the first form of learning. Children play, experiment with the world, learn the rules, and learn to interact. Vygotsky agrees that play is pivotal for children's development, since they make meaning of their environment through play.

Learning is acquiring new knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, preferences or understanding, and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Progress over time tends to follow learning curves.

Human learning may occur as part of education or personal development. It may be goal-oriented and may be aided by motivation. The study of how learning occurs is part of neuropsychology, educational psychology, learning theory, and pedagogy.

Learning may occur as a result of habituation or classical conditioning, seen in many animal species, or as a result of more complex activities such as play, seen only in relatively intelligent animals [1 ] [2 ] and humans. Learning may occur consciously or without conscious awareness. There is evidence for human behavioral learning prenatally, in which habituation has been observed as early as 32 weeks into gestation, indicating that the central nervous system is sufficiently developed and primed for learning and memory to occur very early on in development. [3 ]


Play has been approached by several theorists as the first form of learning. Children play, experiment with the world, learn the rules, and learn to interact. Vygotsky agrees that play is pivotal for children's development, since they make meaning of their environment through play.



Types of learning

[edit] Simple non-associative learning
[edit] Habituation
Main article: Habituation
In psychology, habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition of a stimulus. It is another form of integration. An animal first responds to a stimulus, but if it is neither rewarding nor harmful the animal reduces subsequent responses. One example of this can be seen in small song birds - if a stuffed owl (or similar predator) is put into the cage, the birds initially react to it as though it were a real predator. Soon the birds react less, showing habituation. If another stuffed owl is introduced (or the same one removed and re-introduced), the birds react to it again as though it were a predator, demonstrating that it is only a very specific stimulus that is habituated to (namely, one particular unmoving owl in one place). Habituation has been shown in essentially every species of animal, including the large protozoan Stentor Coeruleus. [4 ]

[edit] Sensitization
Main article: Sensitization
Sensitization is an example of non-associative learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus (Bell et al., 1995). An everyday example of this mechanism is the repeated tonic stimulation of peripheral nerves that will occur if a person rubs his arm continuously. After a while, this stimulation will create a warm sensation that will eventually turn painful. The pain is the result of the progressively amplified synaptic response of the peripheral nerves warning the person that the stimulation is harmful. Sensitization is thought to underlie both adaptive as well as maladaptive learning processes in the organism.

[edit] Associative learning
Associative learning is the process by which an element is learned through association with a separate, pre-occurring element.

[edit] Operant conditioning
Main article: Operant conditioning
Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. Operant conditioning is distinguished from Pavlovian conditioning in that operant conditioning deals with the modification of voluntary behavior. Discrimination learning is a major form of operant conditioning. One form of it is called Errorless learning.

[edit] Classical conditioning
Main article: Classical conditioning
The typical paradigm for classical conditioning involves repeatedly pairing an unconditioned stimulus (which unfailingly evokes a particular response) with another previously neutral stimulus (which does not normally evoke the response). Following conditioning, the response occurs both to the unconditioned stimulus and to the other, unrelated stimulus (now referred to as the "conditioned stimulus"). The response to the conditioned stimulus is termed a conditioned response.

[edit] Imprinting
Main article: Imprinting (psychology)
Imprinting is the term used in psychology and ethology to describe any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. It was first used to describe situations in which an animal or person learns the characteristics of some stimulus, which is therefore said to be "imprinted" onto the subject.

This section requires expansion.


[edit] Observational learning
Main article: Observational learning
The learning process most characteristic of humans is imitation; one's personal repetition of an observed behaviour, such as a dance. Humans can copy three types of information simultaneously: the demonstrator's goals, actions and environmental outcomes (results, see Emulation (observational learning)). Through copying these types of information, (most) infants will tune into their surrounding culture.

[edit] Play
Main article: Play (activity)
Play generally describes behavior which has no particular end in itself, but improves performance in similar situations in the future. This is seen in a wide variety of vertebrates besides humans, but is mostly limited to mammals and birds. Cats are known to play with a ball of string when young, which gives them experience with catching prey. Besides inanimate objects, animals may play with other members of their own species or other animals, such as orcas playing with seals they have caught. Play involves a significant cost to animals, such as increased vulnerability to predators and the risk of injury and possibly infection. It also consumes energy, so there must be significant benefits associated with play for it to have evolved. Play is generally seen in younger animals, suggesting a link with learning. However, it may also have other benefits not associated directly with learning, for example improving physical fitness.

[edit] Enculturation
Enculturation is the process by which a person learns the requirements of their native culture by which he or she is surrounded, and acquires values and behaviours that are appropriate or necessary in that culture. [5 ] The influences which as part of this process limit, direct or shape the individual, whether deliberately or not, include parents, other adults, and peers. [5 ] If successful, enculturation results in competence in the language, values and rituals of the culture. [5 ] (compare acculturation, where a person is within a culture different to their normal culture, and learns the requirements of this different culture).

[edit] Multimedia learning
The learning where learner uses multimedia learning environments (Mayer 2001). This type of learning relies on dual-coding theory (Paivio 1971).

[edit] e-Learning and Augmented Learning
Electronic learning or e-learning is a general term used to refer to Internet-based networked computer-enhanced learning. A specific and always more diffused e-learning is mobile learning (m-Learning), it uses different mobile telecommunication equipments, such as cellular phones.

When a learner interacts with the e-learning environment, it's called augmented learning. By adapting to the needs of individuals, the context-driven instruction can be dynamically tailored to the learner's natural environment. Augmented digital content may include text, images, video, audio (music and voice). By personalizing instruction, augmented learning has been shown to improve learning performance for a lifetime. [6 ]

[edit] Rote learning
Main article: Rote learning
Rote learning is a technique which avoids understanding the inner complexities and inferences of the subject that is being learned and instead focuses on memorizing the material so that it can be recalled by the learner exactly the way it was read or heard. The major practice involved in rote learning techniques is learning by repetition, based on the idea that one will be able to quickly recall the meaning of the material the more it is repeated. Rote learning is used in diverse areas, from mathematics to music to religion. Although it has been criticized by some schools of thought, rote learning is a necessity in many situations.

[edit] Informal learning
Main article: Informal learning
Informal learning occurs through the experience of day-to-day situations (for example, one would learn to look ahead while walking because of the danger inherent in not paying attention to where one is going). It is learning from life, during a meal at table with parents, Play, exploring.

[edit] Formal learning
Main article: Education


A depiction of the world's oldest continually operating university, the University of Bologna, Italy
Formal learning is learning that takes place within a teacher-student relationship, such as in a school system.

[edit] Nonformal learning
Main article: Nonformal learning
Nonformal learning is organized learning outside the formal learning system. For example: learning by coming together with people with similar interests and exchanging viewpoints, in clubs or in (international) youth organizations, workshops.

[edit] Non-formal learning and combined approaches
The educational system may use a combination of formal, informal, and non-formal learning methods. The UN and EU recognize these different forms of learning (cf. links below). In some schools students can get points that count in the formal-learning systems if they get work done in informal-learning circuits. They may be given time to assist international youth workshops and training courses, on the condition they prepare, contribute, share and can proof this offered valuable new insights, helped to acquire new skills, a place to get experience in organizing, teaching, etc.

In order to learn a skill, such as solving a Rubik's cube quickly, several factors come into play at once:

Directions help one learn the patterns of solving a Rubik's cube
Practicing the moves repeatedly and for extended time helps with "muscle memory" and therefore speed
Thinking critically about moves helps find shortcuts, which in turn helps to speed up future attempts.
The Rubik's cube's six colors help anchor solving it within the head.
Occasionally revisiting the cube helps prevent negative learning or loss of skill.
[edit] Tangential Learning
Tangential Learning is the process by which some portion of people will self-educate if a topic is exposed to them in something that they already enjoy such as playing an instrument like the guitar or playing the drums.

[edit] Dialogic Learning
Main article: Dialogic learning
Dialogic learning is the type of learning based on dialogue. Its conception is based on contributions of diverse disciplines.

[edit] Domains of Learning
The three domains [7 ] of learning are:

Cognitive - To recall, calculate, discuss, analyze, problem solve, etc.
Psychomotor - To dance, swim, ski, dive, drive a car, ride a bike, etc.
Affective - To like something or someone, love, appreciate, fear, hate, worship, etc.
These domains are not mutually exclusive. For example, in learning to play chess, the person will have to learn the rules of the game (cognitive domain); but he also has to learn how to set up the chess pieces on the chessboard and also how to properly hold and move a chess piece (psychomotor). Furthermore, later in the game the person may even learn to love the game itself, value its applications in life, and appreciate its history (affective domain).

[edit] Mathematical models of learning
For mathematical models of learning, see:

Fadul, J. "Mathematical Formulations of Learning: Based on Ten Learning Principles" International Journal of Learning. Volume 13 (2006) Issue 6. pp. 139-152. and
deFigueiredo, R.J.P. Mathematical formulation of cognitive and learning processes in neural networks, 1990
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
What is e-Learning
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
منتديــات عـــــرب ســـــام :: علوم وثقافة :: الطلبات والبحوث الدراسية-
انتقل الى: